In recent years, due to changes in the status of information, small trash, increased the proportion of low-value fish often cause extreme because treatment is not timely and waste.
A new aquatic food - (surimi machinery) surimi products, the Department in order to fish for raw materials, crushing the fish, add salt, auxiliary material, etc. grind collapse, after a thick fish paste reshaping heating becomes gel having elasticity, such articles include fish, fish cake, fish sausage, fish roll and so on. Because of its simplicity conditioning, tender and delicious, and resistant storage, quite suitable for urban consumption, such products that is able to manufacture large-scale factory, but also family-manual production. To improve the economic value of low-value fish, but also for the people to accept, so it is a promising aquaculture products.
On the development of surimi, the Japanese called for the advanced countries. Since the settlement of the production of low-value fish pollock technical problems, Japan's rapid development of manufacturing technology surimi, surimi products variety, each with a grid, aquatic product processing industry is the largest industry.
Surimi products in China also has a long history, tradition products such as fish balls, fish floss and so loved by the masses.
The main features of surimi products Biochemistry principle is that it has a certain elastic structure, the fundamental factor is that the elastic forming fish in the presence of myoglobin globulin.
The minced fish washed off the fish, add 2 to 3% of salt at low temperature after beating collapse, accounting for 60% to 70% of the myosin desolventizing broken sol, muscle myosin fibers extend into the fibrous, mix with each other to form a high viscosity of the sol The state, after forming heating, thermal denaturation and protein due to the interaction between molecules, such as SS combine hydrogen and health combined, hydrophobic binding, such as the role of salt in combination constitute a network structure, thus forming a flexible gel. In the production of surimi, the resilient presence and strength is an important measure of its quality, but the size of the elastic, then by washing, beating the collapse, heating influence of these three processes.
Raw fish processing dehydrated minced meat mining rinsing plus, vice material crushing grind to get heating and cooling products.
1. Selection of raw fish: Any kind of fish can be used as raw material for surimi products, generally freshness good, strong resistance, good taste, color white, high-quality raw fish, fish fingerlings good elasticity There are white, black mouth, dog mother, swordfish, eel, freshwater green, grass carp, but some good fish yield less and less expensive, not mass production, because you must consider the amount of low-value fish catch It uses. Once you master a reasonable low-value fish processing methods, the same high-quality products can be obtained. In addition, according to the regional people's preferences, various types of product characteristics, and with the choice of species has different requirements, the need to local conditions, flexible.
2. Materials handling: the raw material to the head gutted, and with blood, black film was washed with water within the abdominal cavity, so as not to affect the fish's color and appearance. Fish easily spoilage, especially frozen fish once thawed, the deterioration rate more rapidly than fresh fish, raw fish and therefore the importance of timely treatment to prevent degradation of the quality of freshness.
3. Flesh: After handling raw fish, feed the fish, meat, mining machine and skin, bone separation, there are several types of Flesh, its working principles are the same, at home and abroad is common and the press drum type mining meat machine, the use of stainless steel drum with a sieve repeatedly pressed fish, fish out through the hole, which separated from the bone and skin.
4. Rinse: mining minced fish meat, except after good elasticity, color white, high-quality fish, generally need to be rinsed, rinsing purpose is to remove the blood, urea, pigments, inorganic salt and some water-soluble substances, in order to enhance the flexibility of surimi improve product color, each gas. For freshness poor elasticity or fish, this process is very important. Rinse tank available capacity of 0.5 to 1 ton circular stainless steel, lead alloy or iron tank, water is usually 4 to 5 times the weight of the material, repeatedly rinse 3 to 4 times. Repeated rinsing usually increases hydrophilic meat, fish make expansion difficult to dehydration, so it is best at the last rinse added 0.01 to 0.3% sodium chloride, rinsed with hard water the same effect can be obtained. In addition, the washing process need to focus on controlling the water temperature below 10 ℃.
5. beat collapse: surimi production processes is one of the most important beat collapse. After rinsing fish, dried meat machine filter tiny bone spurs, anti-connective tissue, mucous membranes and other impurities were removed after crushing grind. Beating the collapse of the purpose is to make muscle fiber protein dissolved out, and also has the function of uniformly mixed seasonings. Attritor strip made of stone or stainless steel with 2 to 3 rods made of mortar composition, the rod speed is about 70 to 80 rev / min, each mortar can be installed capacity of 70 to 100 kg of meat.
Lower when the article is crushed grind just add salt and other materials added to the fish once beat ulcer, advanced products should grind the fish to collapse a few minutes, so that the full release of fish in order to dissolve, then add 2.5 to 3% salt continues to grind the collapse of 20 to 30 minutes, after beating the collapse salt, fish that is turned into a very sticky paste, and finally add a variety of add crushed material then beat 10 to 15 minutes, the amount of salt added to improperly influence not only the flavor of products, also reduce the viscosity of the fish. Beat collapse lack of time, the fish can not form a mesh structure.
The order of addition is not necessarily vice materials, general protein additives and wine can be added last beat collapse should make the meat temperature was kept below 10 ℃.
6. Forming: use after the collapse of surimi mechanical grind meat paste adhesion and plasticity into various shapes. In Japan, all rely on molding machines complete. Molding should be careful not to allow air to enter the fish paste, fish paste because once the bubble has expanded when heated rupture, leaving voids, thus affecting the appearance of the article.
Fish paste collapse if after a period of time beating itself into a gel, so that the occurrence of difficulties in forming, this phenomenon is called condensation. To prevent the "condensation", fish paste should be stored at low temperatures, and timely molding. "Condensation" form depends on the species.
7. Heating: After heating, the products complete the whole process of gelation, while the fish kill bacteria to make products easy storage. Heating generally steaming, roasting, cook soup, fried four. Other also useful for infrared radiation or high-frequency heating method. The heating temperature varies according to different products, different heating methods. General increase of starch products, heat-resistant bacteria are more mixed because, the core temperature products need more than 75 ℃; without added starch person, product core temperature of 70 ℃ Just to be. Also take off abroad segmented heating method, which is to be heated to 45 ~ 50 ℃, forming high strength gelled network structure, and then heated to 75 ℃, are provided for sterilization.
8. Cooling: After heating products must be cooled rapidly in order to facilitate further reduce bacterial contamination, extend product storage time. Some Japanese plants, mostly air-cooled, cold system after the article should be kept at a low temperature.